The Museum named after I.V. Savitskiy in Nukus
There are presented one of the most unique collections of cloths of Russian artists. Thanks to them the museum is popular around the world.This museum is named in honor of Moscow artist Igor Vitalyevich Savitsky. Igor Savitsky arrived to Nukus in the 50s, and in 1966 he was appointed as the director of the Nukus Museum. Exactly during this period he began to buy works. Initially, Savitsky was engaged in archaeological researches and Karakalpak ethnography, and then he was interested in works of the modern art. However, it was forbidden to do that at an operating political regime. For his hobby Savitsky could be named as «the enemy of the state». He collected prohibited works of masters which were called avant-gardes later. Owing to his collection the museum replenished with 50.000 works of the vanguard and post-vanguard period of the Soviet fine arts. In this place, removed from centers in Nukus, it was possible to get acquainted with that underwent prosecutions in the former Soviet Union many years.The collection of the Museum of Savitsky possesses more than 90 000 exhibits, including a collection of Russian vanguard, and also fine arts of Uzbekistan, national applied art of Karakalpakstan, the art of Ancient Khoresm which was filled up with delightful copies of a number of exhibits of the Paris Louvre. Famous Russian museum in St. Petersburg and the Tretyakov gallery in Moscow will envy many exhibits which are in the Nukus museum. According to foreign experts, the collection of the State Museum of the Republic of Karakalpakstan named after I.V. Savitsky the best in the Asian region. This museum is the second in the world by importance and volume of collection of works of Russian vanguard.It should be noted that English newspaper "The Gardian" nominated the museum as «one of the finest museums of the world». Albert Gore and Jacques Chirac, the quote gave to the Nukus museum a similar assessment also: «One of the best museums of the world». In order to look at exhibits of the museum have arrived ambassadors, advisers and attachés on culture of many leading powers of the world - Great Britain, Germany, France, Japan. Besides that there were honorable representatives from UNESCO.
Djanbas-Kala fortress is located in the 4th km from settlement Kukcha in Elikkalinsk region of Karakalpakstan. In translation from Turkic the name of the fortress means «an inclined fortress».The fortress is represented in the form of bright and seizing ruins with a view on an old canal the river Amu Darya. Djanbas-Kala fortress is a square, its sizes are 200 and 170 meters and it is the four corners of the earth are well oriented by its corners. The fortress, as well as many others refer to the early antique period, it was created in the IVcentury B.C. and had been functioning till the I century A.D..Fortress walls well remained and in some places reach 20 meters of height. Besides that, also remained monumental gates. Djanbas-Kala is distinguished among many others fortresses with a lack of towers on external walls. However and without towers, the fortress was a under good protection. Double walls had internal corridors at two levels, archers had a possibility to shoot from there and on the external surface were founded thousands of loopholes.A typical feature of this fortress was a presence of embrasures which were located in top galleries of the wall.An archer could shoot through loopholes with a help of embrasures at a whole bottom territory along walls which were located under three different corners.There is a street with inhabited quarters on the southeastern direction from the main gate. It leads to the top point of the city, a monumental building which is located there is approximately a Temple of fire.
Toprak-Kala fortress is located in 12 km from Buston settlement in the Ellikkalinsk area of the Republic of Karakalpakstan. It is considered as the most significant among other fortresses of the ancient Khoresm.The complex of constructions includes a city with a citadel, there are: a fire temple, a palace on a high platform, a country palace and temple ensemble and plenty of vacant territory which is braided by high shaft and is predetermined for collecting armies and populous celebrations. There are more palaces and temples than inhabited quarters. Toprak-Kala was the residence of the Khorezm shah in 2-3 centuries A.D. The vast castle was constructed in the form of a rectangle extended from the north to the south, its area – 500x350 m. The city was surrounded with fortifications and square towers, they are each located 10-12 m. There were two-storied galleries for defense in walls. In the bottom gallery soldiers had rest, and a top of it were intended for operations. Creation of ditches before fortifications for a spare barrier was the inherent phenomenon of military tactics of that time. A ditch Toprak-Kala surrounded city walls from everywhere; its width was 16 m, and depth – 3 m. Almost all rooms of a palace were decorated with wall lists and sculptures. Among all of them a big central smart hall - «A hall of tsars» was especially allocated. There, next to the decorated walls are placed 23 clay statues of Khorezm governors. Sizes of statues are twice more than natural sizes. Till today, sculptures remained only in fragments.
Kyrk-Kyz Kala fortress (I-VIth centuries AD) is in 27 km to the north from the city of Biruni. It is located beyond the city and approximately was the country residence of governors. The name of a fortress means «forty girls». According to one legend, in this fortress lived a courageous queen Gulayim with forty companions. These brave women beat off from terrible enemies.This site of ancient settlement found in 1938 at carrying out archeological excavations. The sizes of the fortress of 65х 63 m 65, it was located on the flat district. The external wall possessed two circles with arrow-shaped loopholes. According to researchers, the fortress was erected to protect northeast borders of ancient Khoresm. Archeologists found the burials made on a ceremony of ancient fire worshippers in a site of ancient settlement. Bones of the person were laid in ceramic jugs – huma, the heads of the woman having a form. This fortress was those times a trade place of the Great Silk Road. Kyrk-Kyz was built from a mud brick with addition of adobe, whereas arch overlappings were created from a baked brick. According to carried out archeological excavations it is supposed that the fortress was divided into four parts.In the north-western and in the northeast part were 5 rooms which were combined only with a corridor. The southwestern part also included five rooms; however there were only two corridors. The southeastern part consisted of two rooms and one corridor. In other part of the residence there was a reception where dervishes prayed. The interior of the residence did not stand out with abundant decor. A refinement of internal garment is distinguished by different forms and technology of a window and arch apertures bricklaying.