Sightseeing in Navoi
Sightseeing in Navoi
The fortress of Alexander the Great the ruins of a fortress built by Alexander in the 4th century BC. It is located on the southern outskirts of the city Nurata. The ancient settlement consists of several different parts of the sound. The ancient settlement was called the mountains as Nur, about the size of 500x500 meters, was surrounded by a strong wall with towers. The entrance is in the middle of the north wall. In the south wall is almost rested on the rocks. Strengthening Nura adjacent to the spring. The fortress extends from north-west to south-east. The south wall is reinforced by four circular and semi-circular towers in the plan. In the eastern half survived the rise, where the walls are partially visible. The northwestern part of the most devastated. From the south-east tower departs corridor-building length of 130 and a width of 16 meters. It ends with a square watch tower in terms of the size of 26x26 meters. Thereafter, the excavations on the site are no longer carried out. Presumably the fortress was built as a strategic facility on the border between agricultural areas and wild steppe. Karizes system a unique underground water pipe near Nurata, built on the orders of and under the direction of Alexander. Kariz, an ancient water pipe, laid from the source to the consumer. Its length was several miles away. The most ancient petroglyphs differ from grace and compositional perfection. One feels a hand not only patient and hard-working artist, but also a thinker who tries to bring forward their understanding of the world and the story of his life. Rather, life was not quite hastily, or the meaning of the depicted carrying a special significance. How else to explain the long and painstaking work by knocking out or cutting of the veins in the rock deep furrows, and then carefully polished cleaved many places. More recent figures are not different so meticulous thoroughness and generally more lumpy and tough to execute. The meaning of the depicted in them did not carry the special emphasis, as they were applied, most likely, as a tribute to the more advanced time series of continuing intellectual development of man. The symbols and signs began to appear, weighed down by the knowledge of the outside world. And for their explanations have been invented paper. So, sometimes, a professional historian, rather pick up a pen and ink, rather than a rock or a pick. But modern chroniclers, generally are vandals, than, friends and lovers, with which they wanted to be, judging by their inscriptions. The problem of dating petroglyphs has not yet fully solved. According to different sources their age is estimated 5-6 BC. It has been estimated that the world's total number of drawings on rocks reaches 20 million pieces, which are concentrated more than 20 thousand sites in 78 countries. Symbolism in the image body parts of animals and, most often, the horses are cosmic character. These images of animals are often found in petroglyphs of Navoi region. There are many other signs are not similar to known objects. For example, some scientists such figures relate to the type of sun-moon, because they believe that they represent the moon or the sun. But other researchers believe that the ancient people saw some aircraft and portrayed them. Whatever it was, each pattern has deep sense: these symbols before appearing on the rocks, originated in the minds of people. Pictures of animals can be considered as a symbolic pointer "astral travel direction" and at the same time this is due to the daily practice of farmers cultivating their fields, as well as the emergence of the concepts of basic geographical coordinates: noon-midnight, sunrise-sunset. Obviously, that's why on the left side of the cross is located a circle – sign of the sun. Circular patterns can be understood as an image of the compass or a perimeter defense of animals before attacking predator.
The explanation of some images has not yet found therefore we think deserve attention - it is primarily the image "of the ancient calendar." Greater complexity in the interpretation of the petroglyphs is belonging to the so-called signs of fertility. This can probably be attributed stylized images of snakes, animals and calves, as well as carved with images of pit.
Chordara Castle is the oldest historical monument, located in Kanimekh district of Navoi region. It is a fortified castle dating fifth century BC. Up to now relatively well preserved walls and doorways were built in the form of arches. The main material for the construction of the castle was the largest adobe brick and blocks pakhsa (beaten clay).In carrying out archaeological excavations in the castle were found well-preserved fragments of pottery, widely used in the V century BC, which helped to establish the exact date of construction of the monument Chordara. In addition, there were found adobes with size of 50x30x10 cm, which is also used at this time for the whole of Central Asia in the construction of buildings. Ancient buildings of architectural monument Chordara indicate that at the time of V century BC in Zarafshan valley had been developed agriculture. This indicates that the cultural life of Navoi region belongs at the time of the ancient Sogdiana, starting no later than V BC. With careful study of the area, along the river flow Kanimekh were found a few ruins of the estates of the same period, from which, however, remained only cultural layers and foundations of buildings. In the fortress there were underground drainage channels. Some of them have survived to the present day. Very interesting is the technical layout of walls and towers of the fortress. The main part of the wall is directed to the mountain. At the top of the mountain was a tower, which was the vantage point. Total fortress consisted of seven towers. It is worth noting that preserved remains of unique castle Chordara are rare historical and archaeological sources that retained the information not only about the nature of its structure, but also the valuable historical information.
Nur fortress is a historical monument of antiquity, which is located near the sacred spring "Chashma" in Bukhara. The chronicles mention the old name of the fortress "Nuri Bukhara" that literally translates as "Light of Bukhara."According to historians, the fortress was built many centuries before our era. The first mention of the fortress dates back to 329-327 BC, when during the invasion of Alexander the Great the castle was rebuilt and its length was increased by 22 km.Nur fortress is now located in countryside to the northeast of Navoi city. The ancient monument is located on the northern slope of the western spurs Nuratau ridge and on the caravan route connecting Zarafshan valley with the main cities of Bukhara and Samarkand and areas of southern Kazakhstan. It was a border fortress and a large village on the border with the steppe, an important trading hub and military-strategic point, protected by powerful fortifications. Ancient fortress on the south rises above the city, under it there is a spring and pond, which is now absorbed by modern urban neighborhoods. The ancient oasis of Nur was surrounded by a defensive wall. It had only one entrance on the north side against the city gates. Its remnants can be seen on the maps in the mid-twentieth century. At the beginning of 1220 to this fortress came army of Genghis Khan. It was so unexpected that residents took over the Mongols in the darkness of the night as arrived caravan. In later times Nur remained a gateway to Bukhara. Through it passed the troops of Amir Temur and other rulers, and in times of peace - caravans, ambassadors, travelers. Prior to the beginning of XX century Nur was a border with the steppe trade and craft town with a powerful fortress, where sat a protégé of Bukhara Emir. The main street of the city was a covered with market, surrounded by rows of trade and craft; there were also numerous caravanserais where merchants stayed with the goods. The area of the city consisted of four densely built-up parts, each of which consisted of small blocks. Being historical monument of antiquity this unique fortress attracts numerous visitors though out the world.
Mausoleum of Mir Saeed Bahrom
Mausoleum of Mir Saeed in Kermine is one of the earliest surviving burial structures in Maveraunnakhr. It was constructed in X century in the town near Navoi. Experts indicate its nearest equivalents: Samanids mausoleum in Bukhara (end of IX-X centuries) and Arab -Ata Mausoleum (last quarter of X century).Mausoleum of Mir Saeed Fringe belongs to the so called centric mausoleums with stylistic features and decoration of the end of X - XI centuries. Currently Kufi inscription of the portal is almost completely lost. Despite the fact that the base of the mausoleum is very (i.e. in the form of a quadrilateral is a trapezoid, the hexagonal shape), the masters were easily managed in an original manner a constructive solution. Analysis of slag shows that raw materials did not come from one particular field. It is assumed that the materials for construction could come from Altyntopkana, Kanji - Tabosharskih mines and workings of the closest Kurgashinkana. Most likely, this is not a consequence of the administration, and one of the characteristic phenomena taking place in the region's economy in the X-XI centuries. Among local people have opinions about what the mausoleum were restored in the late XVIII century. This is confirmed by inscriptions, carved doors bred on the south facade of the monument. From ancient patterned carved columns of the mausoleum survived only 15 columns, 8 columns are stored in Tashkent in national museum of Uzbekistan.
Kasim Sheikh Khanaka
Kasim Sheikh Khanaka is located in the city of Navoi region - Karman, dating back to the XVI century, becoming one of the revered sites in the country. In memorial complex at the grave of Sheikh Kasim, who died in 1571, were originally built Dakhma, three-chamber marble portico with three-span memorial mosque and fence yard. Right next to a mosque erected soon Khanaka that includes cross-shaped plan room and corner of the room. On three fronts marked arched portals, the main thing - especially high. In the overall composition dominates the dome on a high drum with traces of majolica cladding based on intersecting arches girth. The central dome and cupolas of angular interiors decorated in the form of elegant stucco lampshades on grids thyroid sails. In 1910, the south-west of khanaka, was constructed a second fenced yard with dakhma, summer mosque, and outbuildings. It should be noted that in the territory of Khanaka buried father of last Emir of Bukhara Alimkhan, Sayyid Abdul Ahad Khan Bahadur. He is buried in front of the tomb of Sheikh. According to scientists, the ruler Abdulahadhan deeply believed in the ideas and teachings of Sheikh Kasim, that was the reason for his burial next to this man. Kasim Sheikh Khanaka distinguished by some pretentiousness plan and overall composition. Facades are niche portal adjoined side wings walls with single-tiered arched niche; the main facade is highlighted with peshtak. Central Hall underlined decorative domes on a very high drum, which is based on a system of diminishing octagons. Today, in accordance with the state program for the restoration and reconstruction of historical monuments in Kasim Sheikh Khanaka are already approaching the end of work on the restoration of the lost species and summer mosque dakhma. These works began in July this year.
Caravanserai Rabat Malik in Navoi
On one of the routes of the Great Silk Road in Navoi region located caravanserai Rabat- Malik. It was built in the XI century by Karakhanids ruler al-Mulk Nasr ibn Ibrahim. And now it keeps unique archaeological and historical value. Numerous archaeological works were made in order to restore this masterpiece of medieval masters. This complex occupied space of 100 x 100 m, circled by strong walls and divided into two halves. Entrance portal of 18 meters led to the courtyard square where archaeologists found the remains of dwellings, mosques, baths, economic part, stables for 150 horses. In the south - west courtyard was a mosque, decorated with carved alabaster, colored in blue and yellow colors. Time has brought to us only pitiful traces of the once majestic and beautiful building in the desert or rather the royal palace fortress than roadside caravanserai. One can only imagine the splendor of the former appearance and Rabat Malik performed with such perfection architects of Maverannahr nearly a thousand years ago. Today a monument entered in the special literature as one of the masterpieces of medieval architecture in Central Asia. Extraordinary expressiveness of his monumental forms, wealth decorative headdress allowed comparing this palace as the one of the most magnificent monuments of Uzbekistan.